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Finger Amputation - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Ray amputations of the index finger are often performed to deepen the first web space in the traumatized hand. The resection is typically performed at the metacarpal metaphyseal base, preserving the carpometacarpal articulation and wrist extensor insertions. Care is taken to preserve glabrous volar skin and to place incisions dorsally Middle finger ray amputation had the maximum loss of grip strength, and index finger ray amputation had greater loss of pinch strength. Affection of neighbouring digits caused greater grip and pinch loss, and a higher DASH score. Primary ray resection decreased the total disability and eliminated the costs of a second procedure Amputation of the Finger and Hand. - A new operation for the prevention and treatment of amputation neuromas . - Index transposition after resection of the long finger ray. - Total middle ray amputation. - Functional assessment of ray transfer for central digit loss . - Results of central ray resection without bony transposition In a finger example, ray amputations are the removal of an entire finger along with the corresponding metacarpal bones in the hand. They are same-day surgeries with the patient going home with a bulky soft dressing. The recoveries can vary, but light use of the hand is almost immediate

Functional and cosmetic outcome of single-digit ray

Amputation of the Finger and Hand : Wheeless' Textbook of

  1. Amputation, finger or thumb, primary or secondary, any joint or phalanx, finger, including neurectomies; with local advancement flaps (V-Y, hood) (26952) Amputation, metacarpal, with finger or thumb (ray amputation), single, with or without interosseous transfer (26910) Excision of neuroma; digital nerve, one or both, same digit (64776
  2. Technical variations include amputation near the level of the middle (PIP) joint, through the big knuckle (MCP joint), or including part of the bone in the palm (ray amputation). Rarely, the decision to amputate may be made in the operating room if circulation to the finger is lost and can't be restored during surgery
  3. g your finger in a car door or catching your ring on a hook or nail. An injury or amputation can damage any part of the fingertip, including the: Skin and soft tissu
  4. Ray amputation Middle / Ring fingers Preserve phalangeal stump Ray amputation (if amputation at MCPJ / no proximal phalanx length) Little finger Preserve MCP (manual worker) Ray amputation (if not) Thank you Questions? References • Hashem, A.M. (2010) 'Salvage of degloved digits with heterodigital flaps and full thicknes
  5. Amputations in the hand are commonly the result of a traumatic injury but may be the result of a planned operation to prevent the spread of disease in an infected finger or hand. Occasionally, traumatically-amputated fingers may be replanted (reattached)
  6. Ray Resection of the Index and Little Fingers Surgical Techniques For resection of the index finger, a skin incision should be used that allows for wound closure without tension or excess integument while preventing contractures.1,7,23,29The digital neurovascular bundles and branches of the superficial radial nerve are identified
  7. Amputated right little finger distal phalanx with adjacent soft tissue swelling is present. Case Discussion Transverse amputation of the distal phalanx of the right little finger

Amputation is a frightening word

  1. Small finger ray amputations. The small finger plays a role in gripping and hooking objects. Small finger injuries are the most difficult to rehabilitate, and the finger often becomes stiff and immobile, possibly hindering hand function by catching on pockets or other objects. In this circumstance, small finger amputation can be considered
  2. Ray resection amputations have been used for severe deformity of a digit, tumors requiring resection, traumatic injuries, and infectious disorders. 10 Single ray amputations have better cosmetic appeal than a partial finger amputation; however, they have been shown to have decreased grip and pinch strength compared with amputations at the level of the proximal phalanx
  3. We report a case of Rhinosporidiosis of the nasopharynx which later involved the right little finger where ray amputation was performed. Keywords: Rhinosporidiosis, osseous involvement, little finger. I NTRODUCTION. Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi

Fig 3c: Fifth ray shifted to the fourth ray. 11 A B c Fig. 2 Possibilities of metacarpal shifts. I: metacarpal osteotomyfor second ray. 11: metacarpal osteotomyfor fifth ray. Fig 3 a. Amputated finger creates a gap in the grip. b. Second ray shifted to the third ray toeliminate gap. Functional Preservation When the amputation is at metacarpal. Single metastatic finger lesions are more common than multiple lesions. Partial or ray amputation appears to be the most frequently reported treatment method for acrometastases, although alternatives encompass systemic therapy and radiation, which in the palliative setting can sometimes achieve disease control and alleviation of bony pain Little data is available about the long-term functional outcome and quality of life after ray amputation or amputation at the level of the proximal phalanx of the index finger. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and postoperative quality of life after ray amputation or Therefore, it can be reasonable to propose a ray amputation and transposition of the ulnar digits when it involves the long or ring finger. Partial amputation of the fourth metacarpal creates a space between the third and the fifth fingers, as the metacarpal stump prevents the convergence of the fifth ray

Eight patients underwent middle ray amputation with excision of the whole of the middle metacarpal and careful soft tissue repair. Excision of the base of the middle metacarpal allowed easier approximation of the index and ring rays without the tendency of these fingers to either scissor on finger flexion or to remain slightly apart The following injuries should be evaluated for replantation as patients will benefit functionally: (1) injuries involving the thumb, (2) multiple fingers, (3) the hand at the level of the wrist or distal forearm, (4) the arm at the level just proximal to the elbow, (5) possibly single digit amputations in setting of prior finger amputations of. Long Finger Ray Amputation Without Transposition . Melikyan and colleagues reported on the outcomes of patients who underwent central ray amputation compared with those who underwent border digit ray amputation. Amputations were performed through the base of the metacarpal, and the DTIL was closed for central deletion cases Amputations. While it would seem that calculating the impairment value for an amputation should be straightforward, it is not easy to extrapolate from a patient's digit to the drawings on page 443 in the 5th Edition of the Guides, even with an x-ray. The method used here compare

Some of the most frequent forms of partial-hand losses involve whole- and partial-finger amputations (Michael & Buckner, 1994; Pillet, 1981).Patients who have experienced amputation of the entire length of all fingers, or even of most of the length of all fingers, face many challenges X-ray images of multi-finger amputations on the (A) left and (B) right hand of a 41-year-old male patient showing the levels of amputation through the proximal phalanges. All the amputated fingers were re-attached and a total of seven fingers survived. In addition, the patient's hands regained reasonable functionality Extremity Flap Reconstruction. • Indicated to reduce the space left between the index and ring finger following middle ray amputation. • An alternative technique is deep transverse intermetacarpal ligament reconstruction Later Ray's amputation of little finger was planned. Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinomas are rare sweat gland tumors which occur on hands, fingers, and toes. They have high local recurrence rate and may metastasize to lungs and lymph nodes

Gallery: Amputation for Dupuytren Contracture

The middle finger was salvaged by using a filet flap from the index finger ray amputation and full thickness skin grafts to the ring finger. The little finger sustained a de-gloving type injury and was closed primarily, understanding that an additional procedure may be necessary. Indeed skin loss and contracture of the little finger ensued. Complete amputation at the level of the PIP joint of the right index finger without distal circulation, along with the crush fracture on the proximal phalangeal bone of middle, ring and little fingers (OBQ09.48) A 6-year-old boy sustained a finger tip amputation shown in Figure A after grabbing a broken glass out of the dishwasher. Your plan was to perform a bedside irrigation and debridement of the finger after digital anesthetic block and apply antibiotic ointment with a sterile dressing

Amputation of the little finger SpringerLin

  1. M. Gardner If a finger is severed, it should be cleaned and covered in gauze. A finger amputation is the removal of all or part of a finger from a person's hand. Reasons for a finger amputation might include a tumor, severe injury, severe trauma, gangrene, frostbite or infection, among others. In some cases, the finger might be reattached after amputation
  2. or amputation, it is still an operation. An amputation affects not only the function of your hand, but its appearance as well. Initially, the situation will be unusual for you - you have to learn what you can still do after the amputation and what functions you no longer have
  3. Dupuytren's contracture (also called Dupuytren's disease, Morbus Dupuytren, Viking disease, and Celtic hand) is a condition in which one or more fingers become permanently bent in a flexed position. It is named after Guillaume Dupuytren, who first described the underlying mechanism of action followed by the first successful operation in 1831 and publication of the results in The Lancet in 1834
  4. g. Conflict in Business Teamwork. X-ray image of diabetic foot amputation, AP and oblique view, Radiography with deformed toes X-ray.
  5. ant artery on which a flap is based; the span and caliber of the nearby captured vessel; the length and.
  6. The Chinese man, 60, said he was gutting a fish at home without wearing gloves when the bone pricked two of his fingers, leaving no blood or visible injuries. Doctors warned he could lose his hand

Traumatic finger amputation Radiology Case Radiopaedia

Amputation of upper extrmities AMPUTATIONS OF SINGLE FINGERS • INDEX RAY AMPUTATION Dorsal skin incisions planned with marking pen. LITTLE FINGER AMPUTATIONS • As much of the little finger as possible should be saved, provided that all the requirements for a painless stump are satisfied Some of the most frequent forms of partial-hand losses involve whole- and partial-finger amputations (Michael & Buckner, 1994; Pillet, 1981).Patients who have experienced amputation of the entire length of all fingers, or even of most of the length of all fingers, face many challenges Indications, techniques, and outcomes vary based on the digit and the number of digits resected. Compared with amputation at the proximal phalangeal level, a single ray resection has better cosmesis and similar function, resulting in improved patient satisfaction. However, a 15% to 30% loss in grip and pinch strength has been reported Lastly, ray amputation of the little finger mostly offers a cosmetic benefit that must be weighed against the potential loss of grip strength. # Proximal Amputations. Preservation of length is an important goal in proximal upper extremity amputations. Because torque is equal to force applied multiplied by distance from the fulcrum (τ = F × d.

LITTLE FINGER AMPUTATIONS As much of the little finger as possible should be saved, When the little finger alone is amputated, and when the appearance of the hand is important or the amputation is at the metacarpophalangeal joint, Fifth metacarpal shaft is divided obliquely at its middle third; Insertion of the abductor digiti quinti is. finger. Generally, the older a dog is, the more risks surrounding surgery and recovery time is longer. That is a fact, and the vet will probably say the same. There is a chance either she won't wake up, or will have a hard time recovering from an amputation. That's the worst case scenario, for which you should be prepared

What is Ray amputation? - AskingLot

A woman was forced to have her finger amputated after a manicure caused a serious infection (SWNS) While a trip to the nail salon is not exactly high up on the list of risky activities, a woman was forced to have her finger amputated after a manicure left her with a life-threatening infection. Jose Jackson, 57, had to get the top of her index. Finger amputation is when part of a finger is removed from your hand. DISCHARGE INSTRUCTIONS: Follow up with your bone or hand specialist within 2 days: Write down any questions you have so you remember to ask them in your follow-up visits. How to care for your injury: Follow your treatment plan to help prevent an infection or further tissue loss Traumatic finger injuries account for a substantial number of emergency visits every year. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and in directing management of these injuries. Although many injuries can be managed conservatively, some require more invasive interventions to prevent complications and loss of function Failure To Treat Finger Infection Results In Amputation. Our client David fractured the base of his little right finger during a road traffic accident on 12 September 2007. He was admitted to Airedale General Hospital on 22 September 2007, where he needed to undergo a procedure to reduce of the fracture under local anaesthetic With X-ray evidence of involvement of 2 or more major joints or 2 or more minor joint groups, with occasional incapacitating exacerbations multiple finger amputations; 5126 Five digits of one hand, amputation of: 1 70: 1 60 5156 Little finger, amputation of

Finger Amputation Codes - Eaton Han

26910 Amputation, metacarpal, w/ finger or thumb (ray amputation), single, w/ or w/o interosseous transfer 26951 Amputation, finger or thumb, primary or secondary, any joint or phalanx, single, including neurectomies; w/ direct closure 2695 National Football League safety Ronnie Lott had the tip of his little finger removed after it was damaged in the 1985 NFL season. Criminal penalty. According to Quran 5:38, the punishment for stealing is the amputation of the hand. Under Sharia law, after repeated offense, the foot may also be cut off Having had only one surgery on one finger, my left hand is nearly normal, with just some stiffness in that finger.My right hand, after 2 surgeries to free 3 fingers, the most recent being this past January, isn't perfect. It's stiff -- but before the surgery it was both stiff and painful, unable to do anything and infuriating with the way my fingers randomly locked Extremity Flap Reconstruction. • Indicated to reduce the space left between the index and ring finger following middle ray amputation. An alternative technique is deep transvers intermetacarpal ligament reconstruction. • Indicated to reduce the space left between the middle and little finger following ring ray amputation

On Nov. 10, she had an amputation of one-third of the distal phalanx bone, in addition to debridement of skin, bone, muscle, and soft tissue, with completion amputation and local flap advancement coverage. Following the procedure, J.V. reportedly suffered nausea. In the ensuing months, she recuperated and was monitored at follow-up evaluations Although the prosthetic part of the little finger would not provide any grip as such, it would nevertheless replace the useful backstop effect of the little finger whilst holding an item, such as a drinking glass, which at present tends to slip through. Then there is the finality of a ray amputation PA X-ray views of the injured finger often appear normal. Lateral view X-ray are used to confirm the diagnosis. Pro tip! Because of the flexed appearance at the DIPJ, a Seymour fracture can be misinterpreted as bony mallet injury; however a mallet finger fracture line enters DIPJ, while Seymour fracture line traverses physis (does not enter DIPJ) A minor amputation is where one or more of the toes are removed surgically and the affected tissue is removed (debrided). This is often due to a serious infection with the skin, tissues and bones of the toe/s and foot. If you don't have the operation you may become very unwell due to infection. A minor amputation may also be needed if the toe

Results and factors of prognostic value. - Ray Amputations: - w/ ray amputations, the first metatarsal ray may be amputated, w/ only moderate loss of foot function; - some argue that medial and lateral longitudinal forefoot amputations in diabetics are highly (80%) successful; - others (Wagner) argue that only lateral longitudinal amputations. Her fingertip of the right little finger was amputated stuck by the air purifier. An adjunctive technique of ray approximation after central ray amputation is presented. As an alternative. SF Ray Resection • Caught small finger on plant hook while trying to cathtch after hihanging Xmas tree • Degloved small finger distal to MCP • Avulsion FDP tendon with muscle belly American Academy of Professional Coders • 26910 = ray resection Session 1A, 10-11:30 AM Friday, October 26th, 201 The fingers and hand was then cleaned with saline. A metacarpal block was done with .25% marcaine. A sterile dressing of Xeroform and two gauze was then applied which was tied around the wrist and then this was covered with Coban. Pt doing well transferred to postop for recovery. Did an amputation of the bone in the finger happen

Procedure 2: First, a line is drawn along the full length of the mid-lateral line of the finger, and the width of the distal end of the flap is decided by the longitudinal diameter of the finger amputation stump. From that point a line is drawn diagonally to the PIP joint, and a long narrow flap is designed. Fig. 8.3 pyogenic connection between sheaths of thumb and little fingers at level of wrist. 1) fingers flexed 2) TTP 3) Painful extension 4) fusiform swelling. knavel signs. indicated to reduce space from middle ray amputation. little metacarpal transposition. indicated to reduce space following fourth ray amp Finger amputation. Traumatic finger amputations are common and often debilitating, totaling 45,000 cases annually in the United States 27). In the United States, close to a third of traumatic finger amputations are work-related, with even greater numbers world-wide 28) While working for manufacturing company Foremost Fabricators, Gina Senter's pinkie finger on her left hand got caught between two rollers on a roller machine. She underwent fingertip and ray amputations following a doctor's advice to restore function in the finger, leaving her with 100% permanent partial impairment of the left little.

Swan neck deformity (SND) affects your fingers. It occurs when multiple joints in your fingers bend in unusual positions because of a health condition or injury. SND can cause pain, as well as. These included 6 index fingers, 5 middle fingers, 3 ring fingers and a little finger. The injuries resulting in amputa-tions were as follows: 10 avulsions, 5 crushes and no cleanly severed cases. Seven patients with 10 complete amputations underwent replantations, and 4 with 5 in-complete amputations underwent revascularization. PI Question: Finger Distraction Lengthening. Okay, when I was 4 years old I smashed my pinky finger in a door at daycare. They took me to a hospital and the doctor wanted to amputate it down to the first knuckle but my mother didn't want to amputate. So they found a doctor who pretty much just sewed it up, keeping the distal part of my finger Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis, also called wear-and-tear arthritis, is the most common type of finger arthritis.Osteoarthritis causes normal cartilage to wear away. This exposes bare bone at the joints. The most frequently affected joints in the hand are the knuckles of the mid-finger and fingertip (the PIP and DIP joints) and the joint at the base of the thumb 11,149 amputation stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. See amputation stock video clips. of 112. leg amputation disability statistics disabled, amputated disabled infographic prosthetic prosthesis leg disabilities prosthetic leg man with prosthetic leg limb stump. Try these curated collections

Gallery: Amputation for Dupuytren Contracture Dupuytren

Traumatic Crushing Injury of the Fingers. Our hands and fingers are constantly exposed during daily tasks, placing them at high risk for injury. Crush injuries result from high-energy trauma, affecting people of any age. According to Hand, the majority of hand trauma injuries in children are to the fingertips.. The workers' compensation settlement value of finger amputations depends on the number of fingers involved, if the thumb is affected, and if the affected digit is fully or partially amputated. The cost of finger amputation surgery can range from $20,000 to $60,000, per finger Normal hand x-ray of 18 year old female A series of 3 full size digital x-rays or radiographs of a normal hand. At the age of 18, the growth plates and ossification centers of the hand have fully formed and fused. The bones are fully mature and finished growing. hand x ray stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images POSTOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Infected left leg below the knee amputation stump. PROCEDURE: Left below the knee amputation revision SPECIMENS: Bone and soft tissue of the left leg to Pathology. INDICATIONS: The patient is a 55-year-old male with longstanding left below-knee, low amputation. The distal end of the amputation was already hardened and. amputation of the ray (1, 4, 7, 22, 23). The choice large gap left between the middle finger and the little finger was, in any case, unsightly (Fig. 1). At this point, the patient consented to.

Mother's finger amputated after being bitten by 'false

Fingertip Injuries and Amputations - OrthoInfo - AAO

It will mean an amputation of your little finger as well as the metacarpal; what we call a ray amputation. He sat and looked at me. There was a painless lump on the back of my hand and while I was anticipating that it might be removed I did not expect to lose my little finger into the bargain ray are excluded from the series. A number of fingers with fractures have had primary amputation because of ischaemia, they also have been excluded. In considering the result of treatment in this series the fractures have been divided into groups according to the treatment necessary The small finger is the most common finger on which amputation is performed. Amputation is associated with risks such as phantom pain and cold intolerance that, if severe, may substantially affect patient's quality of life [9,10,11,12]. In addition, the cosmetic result of finger amputation is troublesome for some patients Hi there! I'm a 30yo female and I had my dominant index finger amputated to the metacarpal joint (ray amputation) from a work accident. I guess I could answer two of your questions with one response: I looked at it as a chance to become stronger. That's how I dealt with it and as it turns out, how I avoided self pity Amputation of a fingertip, finger, or thumb may be caused by an accident in the home or at work. Depending on the extent and type of the injury, a surgeon may have to remove more of the digit than initially damaged, in order for it to heal optimally

The little toe diverged medially and the third toe laterally. Therapeutic footwear was prescribed and the ulcer healed in 2 months. A fourth ray amputation may lead to better functional and cosmetic results. Sole incisions pose a risk for ulceration; therefore incisions are carried out on the dorsum or the side of the foot.. An amputation is considered the complete loss or the partial loss of a digit or limb. Finger or hand amputations may be required as the result of a severe crush injury, malignant tumor, serious infection or accidental injury. While every finger amputation will be different, most people are able to return to work, hobbies, and sports after treatment c. 20% index finger and 20% middle finger Ring and little finger a. 10% each for ring finger and little finger too b. provides mobility c. aids in the combineddexterity of all fingers 2.Amputation about wrist Advantages: a. pronation are preserve

Forensic expert killed after being hit by a train was

Doctor at a local government hospital said the finger was irrecoverable and amputation was necessary without an X-Ray, thoughts? nsfw. Close. 650. Posted by 6 months ago. Archived. Friend wrecked his bike last night in Bangkok and went down on his pinky. Doctor at a local government hospital said the finger was irrecoverable and amputation was. Raynaud's (ray-NOSE) disease causes some areas of your body — such as your fingers and toes — to feel numb and cold in response to cold temperatures or stress. In Raynaud's disease, smaller arteries that supply blood to your skin become narrow, limiting blood flow to affected areas (vasospasm) to the ring and little finger metacarpal fractures. The index finger CMCJ was reduced and stabilised with a K-wire and a middle-ray amputation was performed as the middle finger was found to be unsalvageable (figure 4). oUTC oMe And follow- Up Postoperatively the patient complained of persistent paraesthesia in the index, ring and little fingers

Amputation: Prosthetic Hand and Fingers The Hand Societ

• Amputation. Here are examples of some injuries and how they may be treated: • Severe crushing of the fingertip: If just skin is removed from the fingertip or if there is just a little bit of bone exposed at the fingertip, this injury can be treated with a simple dressing. If the injury is more serious, surgery may be needed The guy in cyber glasses. High quality photo. Finger tip injury. Xray of a hand of a patient with accidental traumatic amputation of little finger tip. False legs for people being cut below the knee. False legs and soles of the feet as supportive devices For those with a leg amputation both above and below the. Dog with three legs of a lateral dislocation of the left little finger at the proximal interpha-langeal joint. Right The volar view of the severely deviated middle pha-lanx dislocation Figure 2)Anteroposterior x-ray of the chronic proximal interpha-langeal joint dislocation of the left little finger. The articular surface is intact 26010 Drainage of finger abscess; simple (Use appropriate modifier to identify the fifth digit on the right hand) Billing Guide to Avoid Medically unlikely Edit some instances, it may be appropriate for a provider to report medically reasonable and necessary units of service in excess of a MUE value Amputation is the loss or removal of a body part such as a finger, toe, hand, foot, arm or leg. It can be a life changing experience affecting your ability to move, work, interact with others and maintain your independence. Continuing pain, phantom limb phenomena and emotional trauma can complicate recovery

Fingertip amputation Radiology Case Radiopaedia

Consequently the function of his left hand depended entirely upon apposition of the little finger to the thenar eminence. After amputation in the mid-portion of the little finger this apposition was no longer possible (see x-ray taken on Aug. 2, 1966, and compare with one taken Jan. 23, 1965) Overview. A severed finger can mean that all or part of a finger is amputated or cut off from the hand. A finger may be completely or only partially severed Local Anesthesia in Hand Surgery. Of all the types of anesthesia available for surgeons and patients, local anesthesia has the most advantages for the hand surgeon. Local anesthesia involves numbing up an area of the hand or wrist before a procedure is performed. This can be used in the office or in the operating room AMPUTATIONS OF FINGERS AND THUMB. Impairment Ratings . Criteria. NIL. No amputation of fingers or thumb. TWO. Amputation of little finger of one hand. FIVE. Amputation of ring finger of one hand. TEN · Amputation of index finger of one hand · Amputation of middle finger of one hand

Similar Images, Stock Photos & Vectors of xray both wrist

Transmetatarsal - Amputation of all toes at the metatarsals. The CPT® codes to report ankle, foot, and toe amputations are: 27888 Amputation, ankle, through malleoli of tibia and fibula (eg, Syme, Pirogoff type procedures), with plastic closure and resection of nerves. (Use this code for Boyd amputation, as well.) 27889 Ankle disarticulation Patient 4. This is a 24 years old right-handed male carpenter, his left hand was cut by electric saw sustained amputation of the thumb at the metacarpophalangeal joint and the index middle finger at the same level and the ring finger at the mid part of the proximal phalanx successful replantation was done and the operation took about 8 hours and was done under loupe magnification 4 Firework injuries, which most commonly affect hands, are increasing in frequency and severity. We present a pictorial case of a devastating hand injury following a firework explosion in a young male patient. The blast resulted in splaying of the hand with multiple fractures, neurovascular compromise and soft tissue loss. Reconstruction involved a third-ray amputation, fracture fixation, nerve. The traditional partial fifth ray amputation technique didfor treatment of wounds isolated to the fifth toe and metatarsal neuropathy,phalangeal joint (MPJ) area involves removal of the fifth toe and metatarsal head. The goal with partial fifth ray amputation is to maintain at least 50% of the proximal fifth metatarsal morewit Beside above, is a ray a toe? The term ray is a yet more general term that can refer to a finger, toe, thumb, or hallux, but it also includes metacarpals/tarsals, whereas digit, thumb, hallux, finger, and toe only refers to the phalangeal segments of the ray. The term ray is little used in this terminology